Lung cancer remains a deadly disease and most cases are caused by cigarette smoking.
Using data from IARC ( International Agency for research on Cancer) in Lyon, France, Hans Rosling shows the dramatic differences between men and women, between countries and between different decades in the same country. They are due to variations in tobacco smoking in the world. Most people in low income countries cannot afford many cigarettes, and hence have low risk for lung cancer. Middle income countries have the highest frequency of tobacco smoking, and hence of lung cancer. In most high income countries health education and regulations are having effects, tobacco consumption is reduced and so the risk of lung cancer in men. But unfortunately smoking and lung cancer is still increasing in women in many countries. Iceland is the first country to reach equal smoking frequencies in men and women and now also have the same risk for lung cancer in both sexes.
In spite of growing concerns for environmental toxins, tobacco smoking remains the most important avoidable cancer risk in the world.
In this video, Hans Rosling briefly reviews the risk of getting diagnosed with, and the risk of dying from, prostate cancer in the world.
The data is compiled by IARC ( International Agency for research on Cancer) in Lyon, France. The most striking is the high rate of diagnosis per 100 000 men in USA and some countries in West Europe. In contrast, Japan has a very low rate and the most probable explanation is a genetic predisposition in men of European origin. The data is displayed in bubbles for each country and the color of the bubbles refers to the continent where each country is situated.
Breast Cancer is the most common form of cancer among women. Unlike cervical cancer, breast cancer is more common in rich countries than in low- and middle-income countries and also tends to increase as a country gets richer.
But with higher income there are also better chances to save women who get cancer. The data from IARC, now presented in Gapminder World shows how breast cancer has increased in countries like Sweden, but also how death rates are falling. Today, most of the women who get breast cancer in Sweden will survive.
The challenge is to make sure that also low- and middle-income countries will be able to afford treatment for its women when the number of breast cancer now will increase, as they continue to develop.
In this video, Hans Rosling uses liver cancer statistics to show how cancer data from IARC ( International Agency for research on Cancer) can be displayed as moving bubbles in Gapminder World. In this visual way, you can easily compare data for the most common cancers and rapidly understand that each of them have different distributions in the world. Liver cancer is mainly caused by chronic infection by the Hepatitis B virus (and also by the Hepatitis C virus). As this infection is most common in China and other parts of East Asia, as well as in Africa South of the Sahara, it is the countries in these regions that bear the main burden of Liver Cancer in the World (independent of if they have low, middle or high income). Comparing gender differences indicate that higher alcohol consumption in men may explain why the rate of liver cancer in men is twice as high as in women.
In this video, Hans Rosling shows that cancer in the large intestine, i.e. colon, gets more common when countries get richer. The data is compiled by IARC ( International Agency for research on Cancer) in Lyon, France. It reveals that colon cancer is equally common in men and women, that eat similar diets, in high-income countries. Prevention through promotion of health diet have not yet had any big effect but advanced screening programs and improved treatment have decreased the death rate among colon cancer patients in high-income countries. It is paradoxical that high-income leads to a diet that cause this cancer while at the same time only high-income can support a health service that can cure it.
Effective prevention could avoid a lot of suffering and save money for health services.
In this video, Hans Rosling shows that stomach cancer is rare in the poorest countries and the rate of this cancer reach a peak in middle income countries. When countries get still richer the frequency falls. This is in sharp contrast to breast and colon cancer that tend to increase in frequency as countries get richer and richer. The rate of stomach cancer has been especially high in Japan and China. In Japan, wide-spread screening programs using the Japanese endoscopy invention have contributed to reduced death rate in this cancer.
Having seen the video you can look yourself in Gapminder World where the cancer data from IARC (International Agency for research on Cancer) is displayed as moving bubbles.
Cervical cancer is common among middle-aged women. It is caused by a sexually transmitted papillomavirus that causes a lesion in the lower part of the uterus that, in some women, can develop into cancer.
By introducing screening test, so called ”pap smear test”, many countries have managed to reduce the number of women affected by cervical cancer dramatically, and by doing so saving thousands of women every year.
Unlike some other cancers (e.g. breast cancer) cervical cancer is decreasing with higher income.
In this video Hans Rosling compare two nordic countries, Denmark and Norway that, at different times, introduced the Pap smear screening and the effect it has had on the number of women who got cancer.